Note1: For the record, there is no such thing as an African Christianity (Try to define “African” or “Christianity”). As on other continents, there are many Christians with different interpretations of Christian beliefs.
Note2: The titles listed below are my own working bibliography. Please suggest any works you think should be added in the comments section – (author, title). Last updated: 1 May 2008
See also: Resource Links
See the list of Bibliographies at Theology in Africa
(Downloadable PDF)- All books (only) in this bibliography (213 pages;707 titles) were authored by Africans or for Africa (with a few exceptions) and favors books published between 1986 and 2005. Books are listed by academic subject and also by author. Each book is accompanied by notes on availability, price, theological orientation, educational level, subject, review and usefulness. The bibliography is further enhanced by subject and key word indices. (Starcher and Anguandia)
Grant LeMarquand’s – Bibliography of the Bible in Africa (155page PDF) with works at least through 2000.
The Book List: Africa – general
Bibliography of African Traditional Religions – 55 pages; almost 1000 entries – up to 2001 (Chidi Denis Isizoh)
AFRICAN CHRISTIANITY: BIBLIOGRAPHY BY AUTHOR
For a bibliography sorted by date starting with most recent, see: https://benbyerly.wordpress.com/bibliographies/african-christianity-by-date/
Adeyemo, Tokunboh. Salvation in the African Tradition. 2nd ed. Nairobi: Evangel, 1997.
Amirtham, Samuel, and John S Pobee, eds. Theology by the People: Reflections on Doing Theology in Community. Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1986.
Bediako, Kwame. Theology and Identity: The Impact of Culture upon Christian Thought in the Second Century and in Modern Africa. Regnum Studies in Missions. Akropong-Akuapem, Ghana: Regnum, 1999 .
Bediako, Kwame. Theology and Identity: The Impact of Culture upon Christian Thought in the Second Century and in Modern Africa. Oxford: Regnum, 1992.
Bediako, Kwame. Christianity in Africa: The Renewal of a Non-Western Religion. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1995.
Bediako, Kwame. Jesus and the Gospel in Africa: History and Experience. Theology in Africa. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 2004.
Blakely, Thomas D., Walter E. A. van Beek, and Dennis L. Thomson, eds. Religion in Africa: Experience and Expression. London: James Currey, 1994.
Booth, Newell S. Jr. “Time and African Beliefs Revisited.” Pages 83-94 in Religious Plurality in Africa: Essays in Honour of John S. Mbiti. Edited by Jacob K. Olupona and Sulayman S. Nyang. Religion and Society 32. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1993.
Boulaga, F. Eboussi. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1984. Translated by Robert R. Barr. Translation of Christianism Sans Fétiche. Paris: Editions Présence Africaine, 1981.
Bujo, Bénézet and Juvénal Ilunga Muya, eds. African Theology in the 21st Century: The Contribution of the Pioneers. Vol. 1. Translated by Silvano Borruso. Nairobi: Paulines Africa, 2003.
Bujo, Bénézet and Juvénal Ilunga Muya, eds. African Theology in the 21st Century: The Contribution of the Pioneers. Vol. 2. Translated by Silvano Borruso. Nairobi: Paulines Africa, 2006.
Bujo, Bénézet. African Christian Morality at the Age of Inculturation. Nairobi: St. Paul – Africa, 1990.
Bujo, Bénézet. African Theology in Its Social Context. Nairobi: St. Paul – Africa, 1992.
Bujo, Bénézet. African Theology in the 21st Century: The Contribution of the Pioneers. Nairobi: Paulines – Africa, 1992.
Bujo, Bénézet. Foundations of an African Ethic: beyond the Universal Claims of Western Morality. New York: Crossroads, 2003.
Cox, James L. and Gerrie ter Haar, eds. Uniquely African? African Christian Identity from Cultural and Historical Perspectives. Trenton, N.J: African Christian, 2003.
Dedji, Valentin. Reconstruction and Renewal in African Christian Theology. Theology of Reconstruction Series. Nairobi: Acton, 2003.
Dickson, Kwesi A. and Paul Ellingsworth. Biblical Revelation and African Beliefs. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1969.
Dickson, Kwesi. Theology in Africa. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1984.
Dube, Musa W., ed. Other Ways of Reading: African Women and the Bible. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2001.
Dube, Musa W., and Musimbi Kanyoro. Grant Me Justice!: HIV/Aids & Gender Readings of the Bible. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 2005.
Eboussi Boulaga, F. Christianity Without Fetishes: An African Critique and Recapture of Christianity. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1984.
Ela, Jean-Marc. African Cry. Translated by Robert R. Barr. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1986.
Ela, Jean-Marc. My Faith as an African. Translated by John Pairman Brown and Susan Perry. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1986.
Ferdinando, Keith. The Triumph of Christ in African Perspective: A Study of Demonology and Redemption in the African Context. Paternoster Biblical and Theological Monographs. Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster, 1999.
Gatumu, Albert wa. The Pauline Concept of Supernatural Powers: A Reading from the African Worldview. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Paternoster, 2008.
Getui, Mary N., and Emmanuel A. Obeng, eds. Theology of Reconstruction: Exploratory Essays. 2nd ed. Acton, 1999.
Getui, Mary N., Tinyiko Maluleke, and Justin Ukpong, eds. Interpreting the New Testament in Africa. Nairobi: Acton, 2001.
Getui, Mary, Knut Holter, and Victor Zinkuratire, eds. Interpreting the Old Testament in Africa: Papers from the International Symposium on Africa and the Old Testament in Nairobi, October 1999. Nairobi: Acton, 2001.
Getui, Mary N. and Matthew M. Theuri. Quests for Abundant Life in Africa. Nairobi: Acton, 2002.
Gibellini, Rosino, ed. Paths of African Theology. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1994.
Gifford, Paul, ed. The Christian Churches and the Democratisation of Africa. Leiden: Brill, 1995.
Gifford, Paul. New Dimensions of African Christianity. Nairobi: AACC, 1992.
Gifford, Paul. African Christianity: It’s Public Role. London: Hurst, 1998.
Hastings, Adrian. Church and Mission in Modern Africa. New York: Fordham University Press, 1967.
Hastings, Adrian. Christian Marriage in Africa. London: SPCK, 1973.
Hastings, Adrian. Wiriyamu. London: Search, 1974.
Hastings, Adrian. African Christianity: An Essay in Interpretation. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1976.
Hastings, Adrian. A History of African Christianity, 1950-1975. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Hastings, Adrian. African Catholicism: Essays in Discovery. London: SCM, 1989.
Hastings, Adrian. The Church in Africa: 1450-1950. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994.
Healey, Joseph and Donald Sybertz. Towards an African Narrative Theology. Nairobi: Paulines Africa, 1996.
Idowu, E. Bolaji. African Traditional Religion: A Definition. London: SCM Press, 1973.
Imasogie, Osadolor. Guidelines for Christian Theology in Africa. University Press, 1986.
Isichei, Elizabeth. A History of Christianity in Africa: From Antiquity to the Present. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.
Kalu, Ogbu U., ed. African Christianity: An African Story. Perspectives on Christianity 5.3. Pretoria: Department of Church History, University of Pretoria, 2005.
Kalu, Ogbu. Power, Poverty, and Prayer: The Challenges of Poverty and Pluralism in African Christianity, 1960-1996. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World, 2006.
Kalu, Ogbu. African Pentecostalism: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Kalu, Ogbu. Clio in a Sacred Garb: Essays on Christian Presence and African Responses, 1900-2000. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World, 2008.
Kanyoro, Musimbi R. A. and Nyambura J. Njoroge. Groaning in Faith: African Women in the Household of God. Nairobi: Acton, 1976.
Kanyoro, Musimbi R. A. Introducing Feminist Cultural Hermeneutics: An African Perspective. Introductions in Feminist Theology 9. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002.
Kato, Byang H. Theological Pitfalls in Africa. Kisumi, Kenya: Evangel, 1975.
Kato, Byang H. African Cultural Revolution and the Christian Faith. Jos, Nigeria: Challenge, 1976.
Kato, Byang Henry. Biblical Christianity in Africa: a Collection of Papers and Addresses. Achimota, Ghana: Africa Christian, 1985.
Katongole, Emmanuel M. African Theology Today. Scranton, Pa.: University of Scranton Press, 2005.
Katongole, Emmanuel. A Future for Africa: Critical Essays in Christian Social Imagination. African Theology Today 2. Scranton, Pa.: University of Scranton Press, 2005.
Katongole, Emmanuel. The Sacrifice of Africa: A Political Theology for Africa. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2010.
Kibicho, Samuel G. God and Revelation in an African Context. Nairobi: Acton, 2006.
King, Noel Q. African Cosmos: An Introduction to Religion in Africa. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth, 1986.
Kirwen, Michael C. African Cultural Knowledge: Themes and Embedded Beliefs. Nairobi: Maryknoll Institute of African Studies, 2005.
Kisare, Mosi. Meeting the Future: A Guide to Rethinking African Churches Involvement in Development. Nairobi, Kenya: All Africa Conference of Churches, Research and Development Consultancy Service, 1991.
Kisare, Mosi. Meeting the Future II: A Guide to Rethinking African Churches’ Involvement in Development. Nairobi, Kenya: All Africa Conference of Churches, Research and Development Consultancy Service, 1992.
Kobia, Samuel M. The Courage to Hope. Nairobi: Acton, 2003.
Loba-Mkole, Jean-Claude. “The New Testament and Intercultural Exegesis in Africa.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 30 (2007): 7-28.
Magesa, Laurenti. African Religion: The Moral Traditions of Abundant Life. Nairobi: Paulines Africa, 1997.
Magesa, Laurenti. Christian Ethics in Africa. Nairobi: Acton, 2002.
Magesa, Laurenti. Anatomy of Inculturation: Transforming the Church in Africa. Nairobi: Paulines Africa, 2004.
Maigadi, Barje S. Divisive Ethnicity in the Church in Africa. Kaduna, Nigeria: Baraka, 2006.
Mana, Kä. Christians and Churches of Africa: Envisioning the Future: Salvation in Jesus Christ and the Building of a New African Society. Theological Reflections from the South. Akropong-Akuapem, Ghana: Regnum Africa, 2002.
Mana, Kä. Christians and Churches of Africa: Salvation in Christ and Building a New African Society. Theology in Africa. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 2004.
Manus, Ukachukwu Chris. Christ, the African King: New Testament Christology. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1993.
Manus, Ukachukwu Chris. Intercultural Hermeneutics in Africa: Methods and Approaches. Nairobi: Acton, 2003.
Martey, Emmanuel. African Theology: Inculturation and Liberation. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1993.
Maxwell, David, and Ingrid Lawrie, eds. Christianity and the African Imagination: Essays in Honour of Adrian Hastings. Studies of Religion in Africa. Leiden: Brill, 2002.
Mazambara, Phillip Denhe. The Self-Understanding of African Instituted Churches: A Study Based on the Church of Apostles Founded by John of Marange in Zimbabwe. Perspektiven der Weltmission 29. Aachen: Verlag an der Lottbek im Besitz des Verlags Mainz, 1999.
Mbiti, John S. African Religions and Philosophy. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 2002 .
Mbano, Dunstan M.Ecclesiological Trends in the Catholic and Protestant Churches and Their Significance for the Church in Africa: A Study of Selected Texts. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2008.
Mbiti, John S. Concepts of God in Africa. London: SPCK, 1970.
Mbiti, John S. New Testament Eschatology in an African Background. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.
Mbiti, John S. Introduction to African Religion. London: Heinemann, 1975.
Mbiti, John S. Prayers of African Religion. London: SPCK, 1975.
Mbiti, John S. Bible and Theology in African Christianity. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Mbiti, John. “The Biblical Basis for Present Trends in African Theology.” African Theology en Route. Edited by Kofi Appiah-Kubi and Sergio Torres, Sergio. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1979.
McVeigh, Malcolm J. God in Africa: Conceptions of God in African Traditional Religion and Christianity. Cape Cod, Mass: Claude Stark, 1974.
Mofokeng, Takatso Alfred. The Crucified among the Crossbearers: Towards a Black Christology. Kampen: Kok, 1983.
Moreau, A. Scott. The World of Spirits: A Biblical Study in the African Context. Nairobi: Evangel, 1990.
Mugambi, J. N. K., ed. The Church and Reconstruction of Africa: Theological Considerations. Nairobi: AACC, 1997.
Mugambi, J. N. K., ed. The Church and the Future of Africa: Problems and Promises. Nairobi: AACC, 1997.
Mugambi, J. N. K. and Laurenti Magesa, eds. Jesus in African Christianity: Experimentation and Diversity in African Christology. African Christianity. Nairobi: Initiatives, 1989.
Mugambi, J. N. K. and Laurenti Magesa, eds. The Church in African Christianity: Innovative Essays in Ecclesiology. African Christianity. Nairobi: Initiatives, 1990.
Mugambi, J. N. K. African Chrisistian Theology: An Introduction. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 1989.
Mugambi, J. N. K. The African Heritage and Contemporary Christianity. Nairobi: Longman Kenya, 1989.
Mugambi, J. N. K. From Liberation to Reconstruction: African Christian Theology after the Cold War. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 1995.
Mugambi, J. N. K. Christian Theology and Social Reconstruction. Nairobi: Acton, 2003.
Mukonyora, Isabel. Wandering a Gendered Wilderness: Suffering & Healing in an African Initiated Church. New York: Peter Lang, 2007.
Muzorewa, Gwinyai H. An African Theology of Mission. Lewiston, N.Y.: Mellen, 1990.
Muzorewa, Gwinyai H. The Origins & Development of African Theology. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1985.
Ndiokwere, Nathaniel I. The African Church, Today and Tomorrow. Onitsha, Nigeria: Effective Key, 1994.
Ngewa, Samuel, Mark Shaw, and Tite Tienou eds. Issues in African Christian Theology. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 1998.
Njoroge, Nymbura J. and Musa W. Dube, eds. Talitha cum! Theologies of African Women. Pietermaritzburg, South Africa: Cluster, 2001.
Nkansah-Obrempong, James. “The Contemporary Theological Situation in Africa: An Overview.” Evangelical Review of Theology 31, no. 2 (2007): 140-140.
Nyamiti, Charles. Christ Our Ancestor: Christology from an African Perspective. Mambo Occasional Papers – Missio-Pastoral 11. Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo, 1984.
Nyende, Peter. “Institutional and Popular Interpretations of the Bible in Africa.” The Expository Times 119, no. 2 (2007): 59-66.
Nyimi, Modest Malu. Inversion Culturelle et Déplacement de la Pratique Chrétienne Africaine: Préface à Une Théologie Périphérique. Kerk en Theologie in Context – Église et Théologie dans Leurs Contexts 24. Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok, 1993.
O’Donovan, Wilbur. Biblical Christianity in African Perspective. Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster, 1995.
O’Donovan, Wilbur. Biblical Christianity in Modern Africa. Carlisle: Paternoster, 2000.
Oduyoye, Mercy Amba and Musimbi R.A. Kanyoro, eds. The will to Arise: Women, Tradition, and the Church in Africa. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1992.
Oduyoye, Mercy Amba. Beads and Strands: Reflections of an African Woman on Christianity in Africa. Theological Reflections from the South. Akropong-Akuapem, Ghana: Regnum Africa, 2002.
Oduyoye, Mercy. Hearing and Knowing: Theological Reflections on Christianity in Africa. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1986.
Oduyoye, Mercy. Introducting African Women’s Theology. Introductions in Feminist Theology 6. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.
Olupona, Jacob K., ed. African Spirituality: Forms, Meanings and Expressions. World Spirituality: An Encyclopedic History of the Religious Quest 3. New York: Herder and Herder, 2000.
Olupona, Jacob K. and Sulayman S. Nyang, eds. Religious Plurality in Africa: Essays in Honour of John S. Mbiti. Religion and Society 32. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1993.
Oosthuizen, G. C., M. C. Kitshoff, and S. W. D. Dube eds. Afro-Christianity at the Grassroots: Its Dynamics and Strategies. Studies of Religion in Africa. Leiden: Brill, 1994.
Orobator, Agbonkhianmeghe E. Theology Brewed in an African Pot. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 2008.
Otieno, Nicholas. Journey of Hope: Towards a New Ecumenical Africa. Geneva: WCC Publications, 2006.
Parratt, John, ed. A Reader in African Christian Theology. London: SPCK, 1987.
Parratt, John. Reinventing Christianity: African Theology Today. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.
Parratt, John, ed. A Reader in African Christian Theology. North American ed. Denver, Colo.: iAcademic, 2001.
Parrinder, Edward Geoffrey. African Traditional Religion. London: Sheldon, 1974.
Peter, C. B. “African Hyphenated Christians – an Alternate Model of Theologizing in Africa.” Nordic Journal of African Studies 3, no. 1 (1994).
Pheko, S. E. M. The Early Church in Africa (1-7 Century) and Today. Lusaka, Zambia: Multimedia Publications, 1982.
Phiri, Isabel Apawo, Kenneth R. Ross, and James L. Cox, eds. The Role of Christianity in Development Peace and Reconstruction: Southern Perspective. Nairobi: AACC, 1996.
Phiri, Isabel Apawo and Sarojini Nadar, eds. On Being Church: African Women’s Voices and Visions. Geneva, Switzerland: World Council of Churches, 2005.
Phiri, Isabel Apawo, Sarojini Nadar, and Mercy Amba Oduyoye. African Women, Religion, and Health: Essays in Honor of Mercy Amba Ewudzi Oduyoye. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 2006.
Pobee, John S., ed. Exploring Afro-Christology. Frankford: Peter Lang, 1992.
Pobee, John S. Toward an African Theology. Nashville: Abingdon, 1979.
Pobee, John S. Skenosis: Christian Faith in an African Context. Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo, 1992.
Pobee, John S. Christ Would Be an African Too. Gospel and Culture Studies 9. Geneva: WCC, 1996.
Pobee, John S., and Carl F. Hallencreutz eds. Variations in Christian Theology in Africa. Nairobi: Uzima, 1986.
Pobee, J. S, and Gabriel Ositelu. African Initiatives in Christianity: The Growth, Gifts, and Diversities of Indigenous African Churches: A Challenge to the Ecumenical Movement. Risk Book Series 83. Geneva: WCC Publications, 1998.
Ranger, Terence O., ed. Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Russell, William P. “‘Time Also Moves Backwards’: John Mbiti’s Traditional Concept of Time and the Future of World Christianity.”Studies in World Christianity 9, no. 1 (2003).
Sanneh, Lamin. Translating the Message: The Missionary Impact on Culture. American Society of Missiology Series 13. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1989.
Sanneh, Lamin. Whose Religion is Christianity?: The Gospel beyond the West. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003.
Sarpong, Peter. African Theology: A Simple Description. Accra: Cabo Publications, 1988.
Sawyerr, Harry. The Practice of Presence: Shorter Writings of Harry Sawyerr. Edited by John Parratt. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996.
Schreiter, Robert J., ed. Faces of Jesus in Africa. Faith and Culture. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1991.
Shaw, Mark. The Kingdom of God in Africa: A Short History of African Christianity. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996.
Shorter, Aylward. African Christian Theology: Adaptation or Incarnation? Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1977.
Shorter, Aylward. African Culture and the Christian Church: An Introduction to Social and Pastoral Anthropology. London: G. Chapman, 1973.
Shorter, Aylward. Christianity and the African Imagination: After the African Synod: Resources for Inculturation. Nairobi: Paulines, 1996.
Sindima, Harvey J. Religious and Political Ethics in Africa: A Moral Inquiry. Contributions in Afro-American and African studies no. 188. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1998.
Sindima, Harvey J. Drums of Redemption: An Introduction to African Christianity. Contributions to the study of religion 35. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1994.
Speckman, McGlory T. The Bible and Human Development in Africa. African Christianity Series. Nairobi: Acton, 2001.
Stine, Philip C. and Ernst R. Wendland, eds. Bridging the Gap: African Traditional Religion and Bible Translation. UBS Monograph Series 4. New York: United Bible Societies, 1990.
Stinton, Diane B. Jesus of Africa: Voices of Contemporary African Christology. Faith and Culture. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 2004.
Stinton, Diane B., ed. African Theology on the Way. London: SPCK, 2010.
Tesfai, Yacob, ed. The Scandal of a Crucified World: Perspectives on the Cross and Suffering. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis, 1994.
Taryor, Nya Kwiawon. Impact of the African Tradition on African Christianity. Chicago: Strugglers’ Community, 1984.
Timothy, Bankole. Missionary Shepherds and African Sheep: How Does Christianity as Preached and Practised by Europe and America Appear to Africans? Ibadan: Daystar, 1971.
Turaki, Yusufu. An Introduction to the History of SIM/ECWA in Nigeria, 1893-1993. Nigeria?: Y. Turaki, 1993.
Turaki, Yusufu. The British Colonial Legacy in Northern Nigeria: A Social Ethical Analysis of the Colonial and Post-Colonial Society and Politics in Nigeria. Nigeria?: Turaki, 1993.
Turaki, Yusufu. Tribal Gods of Africa: Ethnicity, Racism, Tribalism, and the Gospel of Christ. Nairobi, Kenya: Ethics, Peace, and Justice Commission of the Association of Evangelicals in Africa, 1997.
Turaki, Yusufu. Christianity and African Gods: A Method in Theology. Potchefstroom: Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoër Onderwys, 1999.
Turaki, Yusufu. Foundations of African Traditional Religion and Worldview. Nairobi: WordAlive, 2006.
Ukpong, Justin S. African Theologies Now: A Profile. Eldoret, Kenya: Gaba (AMECEA), 1984.
van der Walt, B. J. The Liberating Message: A Christian worldview for Africa. Potchefstroom, South Africa: Institute for Reformational Studies, 1994.
Waruta, D. W., and H. W. Kinoti, eds. Pastoral Care in African Christianity: Challenging Essays in Pastoral Theology. Nairobi: Acton, 1994.
West, Gerald O., and Musa W. Dube eds. The Bible in Africa: Transactions, Trajectories, and Trends. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
Young, Josiah U., III. African Theology: A Critical Analysis and Annotated Bibliography. Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 1993.
Zahan, Dominique. The Religion, Spirituality, and Thought of Traditional Africa. Translated by Kate Ezra and Lawrence M. Martin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
Zuesse, Evan M. Ritual and World Review a Study of Ritual Symbolism in Some Traditional African Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.
Zuesse, Evan M. Ritual Cosmos: Sanctification of Life in African Religions. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1985 .