Social identity formation and boundary identification can be relatively complex affairs. Here in Kenya issues of ethnic identity were the hot topic during the recent census. Should people have to list their ethnic group? For what purposes? Do kids take the ethnic identity of their father or mother? Should everyone here just call themselves Kenyans instead of listing their specific ethnic group?
On a much lighter note, I’ve been enjoying the recent discussion about the essential nature and fuzzy boundary markers of the biblioblogging group. When it comes to group identity, dialog between necessary essence and fuzzy boundary markers can be fascinating. Two recent posts got me thinking about biblioblogging in terms of social identity. Who’s “in” and who’s “out”! What makes “us” us and “them” them.
- So what is a biblioblog anyway? (Clayboy, who later comments on how much we like to talk about ourselves.)
- Should I apply to become a biblioblogger? (Peter Kirk) — he’s now officially “in.”
It’s not a new discussion; way back in ancient 2005, Mark Goodacre provided this often quoted gem:
…bibliobloggers are largely rebels who do not conform to the norms of the “biblical studies community”. The conversations are not limited to those with tenured academic appointments; the bulk of biblioblogdom is populated by independent scholars and graduate students and one of the joys of the scene is its fundamental democratic impulse. In this respect, it imitates the better e-lists, which have the same democratic ideal in which it is the academic quality of the post that is the guide. So I’d say that far from perpetuating the framework and power structures in the “real” biblical studies community, we are counter-cultural, risky and rebellious. (Cf. among many other posts, Identity, Schmidentity @ Deinde; Death of the Biblioblog?; Stop obsessing about biblioblogging; and a great round-up on Hypotyposeis, Sans-biblioblogue).
As much as I would love to, I can’t prioritize writing a detailed analysis of the current social identity/boundary formation process currently taking place for biblioblogs from a Social Identity Theory perspective. (I’m in purgatory). My goal here is to put the bug in someone else’s mind; it would make a fascinating read. Someone with a bit of wit could have a field day.
Complex social identity and boundary formation happens all the time, but often we aren’t consciously aware of them until some “crisis” brings it to our attention–e.g. a census, a political campaign, or someone asking, “how come there aren’t that many women listed in the biblioblogs top 50. (See Tim Ricchuiti’s comprehensive and updated list of the discussion of women’s marginalization in the biblioblogging world.). I’m not going to enter that discussion (I’m in purgatory, remember? No thoughtful posts for now; just parasitic blogging.) For what it’s worth (cue self-aggrandizing alert), my contribution to “the system” was to split the small-child-raising era with my wife. I went first and was a full-time, stay-at-home dad for four years. Three of those years were in chauvanistic France where the moment I told someone what I was doing, their mouths dropped open in shock–end of conversation. Getting to where I could actually enjoy that exchange made a real man out of me;-).
A couple of other thoughts:
- Consider that the majority of posts from the grand pooba of biblioblogging –the quintessential #1 (now chair of SBL biblbiobloggers)–are about human depravity and cats.
- I consider myself a marginal biblioblogger at best. I do follow and participate in the community conversations (social component), and I have written academic biblical studies posts in the past — and planned future (the essentialist component), but…
- We need to articulate our “myth of origin” … “In the beginning, there was Goodacre, West, Davila, and … (I bet Goodacre has a post about that somewhere.) UPDATE: See McGrath’s (new) ancient GilgaWest Epic. Now all we need is a couple of other versions and a few redactors.
- We could also start reshaping the collective memory–2008: The Wrong Year; 2009: The population explosion; ( and the beginning of the monthly census ritual)…
As for social identity in the New Testament, a great place to start our comparative study is with Brian Tucker’s identity formation blog. (He’s been a bit pre-occupied with Greek lately, but if you look at some of his older posts, he’ll set you straight.) For those of you who will be at SBL this year, my supervisor James C. “Jim” Miller will be giving two related presentations on Social Identity and Paul:
- Paul’s Letters and Early Jewish-Christian Identity Formation – Early Jewish Christian Relations
- Identity Formation in Paul’s Letter to the Philippians – Construction of Christian identities
See also Miller’s Ethnicity and the Hebrew Bible: Problems and Prospectus CBR 6.2 2008 [Abstract]. An article on ethnicity in the NT is forthcoming.
I’ve added short starter bibliographies for Social identity and Social Identity in the Bible to my list of bibliographies (top tab)–see also related bibliographies for Diaspora and Early Christianity and Judaism. (Which reminds me, I really need to update my Luke-Acts references.)
Click “read more” for some bibliographies (100+ entries for social identity in the Bible). Jenkins isn’t a bad place to start. The rest of them are listed here just to give you an idea of the kinds of things people are doing with social identity.
This is a short “starter” list of some social identity works I have used – by date. (See also ethnicity.)
- Jenkins, Richard. Social Identity. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2004.
- Capozza, Dora and Rupert Brown eds. Social Identity Processes: Trends in Theory and Research. London: Sage, 2000.
- Turner, John C. “Some Current Issues in Research on Social Identity and Self-categorization Theories.” Pages 6-34 in Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content. Edited by Naomi Ellemers, Russell Spears and Bertjan Doosje. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.
- Ellemers, Naomi, Russell Spears, and Bertjan Doosje, eds. Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.
- Romanucci-Ross, Lola and and George A. De Vos, eds. Ethnic Identity: Creation, Conflict, and Accommodation. New York: AltaMira, 1995.
- Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. London: Verso, 1991.
- Hogg, Michael A. and Dominic Abrams. Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. London: Routledge, 1988.
- Cohen, Anthony P. The Symbolic Construction of Community. Key Ideas. London: Routledge, 1985.
- Tajfel, Henri, ed. Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. European Monographs in Social Psychology 14. London: Academic Press, 1978.
- Berger, Peter L. and Thomas Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Doubleday, 1989 .
Social Identity in the Bible (books by date):
- Harland, Philip. Dynamics of Identity in the World of the Early Christians. London: T&T Clark, 2009. (Due out in Nov.)
- Tellbe, Mikael. Christ-Believers in Ephesus: A Textual Analysis of Early Christian Identity Formation in a Local Perspective. WUNT 242. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009.
- Bosman, Jan. Social Identity in Nahum: A Theological-Ethical Inquiry. Biblical Intersections 1. Piscataway, N.J: Georgias, 2009.
- Marohl, Matthew J. Faithfulness and the Purpose of Hebrews: A Social Identity Approach. Princeton Theological Monograph Series 82. Eugene, Ore: Pickwick, 2008.
- Capes, David. B., April D. DeConick, Helen K. Bond, and Troy A. Miller. Israel‘s God and Rebecca’s Children: Christology and Community in Early Judaism and Christianity. Waco: Baylor University Press, 2008.
- Nguyen, V. Henry T. Christian Identity in Corinth: A Comparative Study of 2 Corinthians, Epictetus and Valarius Maximus. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 243. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008.
- Holmberg, Bengt. Exploring Early Christian Identity. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 226. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008.
- Holmberg, Bengt and Mikael Winninge, eds. Identity Formation in the New Testament. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 227. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008.
- Hellerman, Joseph H. Jesus and the People of God: Reconfiguring Ethnic Identity. New Testament Monographs 21. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2007.
- Skarsaune, Oskar and Reidar Hvalvik, eds. Jewish Believers in Jesus: The Early Centuries. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, 2007.
- Jackson-McCabe, Matt, ed. Jewish Christianity Reconsidered: Rethinking Ancient Groups and Texts. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2007.
- Watt, Jan G. van der, ed. Identity, Ethics, and Ethos in the New Testament. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 141. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006.
- Campbell, William S. Paul and the Creation of Christian Identity. Library of New Testament Studies 322. London: T&T Clark, 2006.
- Horrell, David G. Solidarity and Difference: A Contemporary Reading of Paul’s Ethics. London: T&T Clark, 2005.
- Asano, Atsuhiro. Community-Identity Construction in Galatians: Exegetical, Social-Anthropological and Socio-Historical Studies. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 285. London: T&T Clark, 2005.
- Buell, Denise Kimber. Why This New Race: Ethnic Reasoning in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.
- Zangenberg, Jürgen and Michael Labahn, eds. Christians as a Religious Minority in a Multicultural City: Modes of Interaction and Identity Formation in Early Imperial Rome. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 243. New York: T&T Clark, 2004.
- Wright, Jacob L. Rebuilding Identity: The Nehemiah-Memoir and Its Earliest Readers. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche 348. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2004.
- Spence, Stephen. The Parting of the Ways: The Roman Church as a Case Study. Interdisciplinary Studies in Ancient Culture and Religion 5. Leuven: Peeters, 2004.
- Jossa, Giorgio. Jews or Christians?: The Followers of Jesus in Search of their Own Identity. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 202. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2007. Translated by Molly Rogers. Translation of Giudei o cristiani? I seguaci di Gesù in cerca di una propria identità. Brescia: Paideia, 2004.
- Lieu, Judith M. Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
- Newsom, Carol A. The Self as Symbolic Space: Constructing Identity and Community at Qumran. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 52. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
- Smith, Anthony D. Chosen Peoples: Sacred Sources of National Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
- Esler, Philip F. Conflict and Identity in Romans: The Social Setting of Paul’s Letter. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2003.
- Zetterholm, Magnus. The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. New York: Routledge, 2003.
- Kertzer, David I., and Dominique Arel, eds. Census and Identity: The Politics of Race, Ethnicity, and Language in National Census. New Perspectives on Anthropological and Social Demography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
- Greifenhagen, F. V. Egypt on the Pentateuch’s Ideological Map: Constructing Biblical Israel’s Identity. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 361. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002.
- Schmidt, Francis. How the Temple Thinks: Identity and Social Cohesion in Ancient Judaism. The Biblical Seminar 78. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.
- Perkins, Pheme. Abraham’s Divided Children: Galatians and the Politics of Faith. The New Testament in Context. Harrisburg, Pa: Trinity International, 2001.
- Riches, John K. Conflicting Mythologies: Identity Formation in the Gospels of Mark and Matthew. Studies of the New Testament and Its World. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.
- Adams, Edward. Constructing the World: A Study in Pauls Cosmological Language (SNTW; Edinburgh: T&T Clark). Studies of the New Testament and It’s World. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000.
- Collins, John J. Between Athens and Jerusalem: Jewish Identity in the Hellenistic Diaspora. 2d ed. The Biblical Resource Series. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000.
- Ramírez Kidd, José E. Alterity and Identity in Israel: The gr in the Old Testament. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 283. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1999.
- Cohen, Shaye J. D. The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
- Mendels, Doron. Identity, Religion and Historiography: Studies in Hellenistic History. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha Supplement Series 24. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.
- Horbury, William. Jews and Christians: In Contact and Controversy. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1998.
- Horst, Pieter W. van der. Hellenism, Judaism, Christianity: Essays on Their Interaction. Contributions to Biblical Exegesis and Theology. Leuven: Peeters, 1998.
- Longenecker, Bruce W. The Triumph of Abraham’s God: The Transformation of Identity in Galatians. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1998.
- Esler, Philip F. Galatians. New Testament Readings. London: Routledge, 1998.
- Lemche, Niels Peter. Prelude to Israel’s Past: Background and Beginnings of Israelite History and Identity. Translated by E. F. Maniscalco. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, 1998.
- Linville, James Richard. Israel in the Book of Kings-The Past as a Project of Social Identity. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 272. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.
- Hall, Jonathan. Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
- Carter, Charles E., and Carol L. Meyers eds. Community, Identity, and Ideology: Social Science Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. Sources for Biblical and Theological Study 6. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1996.
- Christiansen, Ellen Juhl. The Covenant in Judaism and Paul: A Study of Ritual Boundaries as Identity Markers. Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums 27. Leiden: Brill, 1995.
- Taylor, Miriam S. Anti-Judaism and Early Christian Identity: A Critique of the Scholarly Consensus. Studia post-biblica 46. Leiden: Brill, 1995.
- Romanucci-Ross, Lola and A. De Vos eds. George. Ethnic Identity: Creation, Conflict, and Accomodation. New York: AltaMira, 1995.
- Boyarin, Daniel. A Radical Jew: Paul and the Politics of Identity. Contraversions. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 1994.
- Bediako, Kwame. Theology and Identity: The Impact of Culture upon Christian Thought in the Second Century and in Modern Africa. Oxford: Regnum, 1992.
- Dunn, James D. G. The Parting of the Ways: Between Christianity and Judaism and Their Significance for the Character of Christianity. London: SCM, 1991.
- Segal, Alan F. Rebecca’s Children: Judaism and Christianity in the Roman World. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1986.
- Schiffman, Lawrence H. Who Was a Jew? Rabbinic and Halakhic Perspectives on the Jewish Christian Schism. Hoboken, N.J: Ktav, 1985.
- Meyer, Ben F. and E. P. Sanders, eds. Jewish and Christian Self-Definition: Volume Three: Self-Definition in the Graeco-Roman World. London: SCM, 1982.
Social identity and the Bible (articles by date):
[I have a lot of these in electronic form in case you don’t have access and are dying to read one of them, let me know.]
- Hakola, Raimo. “‘Friendly’ Pharisees and Social Identity in Acts.” Pages 181-200 in Contemporary Studies in Acts. Edited by Thomas E. Phillips. Macon, Ga: Mercer University Press, 2009.
- Hakola, Raimo. “The Burden of Ambiguity: Nicodemus and the Social Identity of the Johannine Christians.” New Testament Studies 55 (2009).
- Lamoreaux, Jason T. “Social Identity, Boundary Breaking, and Ritual: Saul’s Recruitment on the Road to Damascus.” Biblical Theology Bulletin 38 (2008): 122-134.
- Baker, J. Coleman. “New Covenant, New Identity: A Social Scientific Reading of Jeremiah 31:31-34.” The Bible and Critical Theory 4, no. 1 (2008).
- Elliott, John H. “Jesus the Israelite was neither a ‘Jew’ nor a ‘Christian’: On Correcting a Misleading Nomenclature.” Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 5, no. 2 (2007): 119-152.
- Luomanen, Petri. “The Sociology of Knowledge, The Social Identity Approach and the Cognitive Science of Religion.” Pages 199-229 in Explaining Christian Origins and Early Judaism: Contributions from Cognitive and Social Science. Edited by Petri Luomanen, Ilkka Pyysiäinen, and Risto Uro. Biblical Interpretation Series 89. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
- Mason, Steve. “Jews, Judaeans, Judaizing, Judaism: Problems of Categorization in Ancient History.” Journal for the Study of Judaism 38 (2007): 457-512.
- Hakola, Raimo. “Social Identities and Group Phenomena in Second Temple Judaism.” Pages 259-276 in Explaining Christian Origins and Early Judaism: Contributions from Cognitive and Social Science. Edited by Petri Luomanen, Ilkka Pyysiäinen, and Risto Uro. Biblical Interpretation Series 89. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
- Jackson-McCabe, Matt. “What’s in a Name? The Problem of ‘Jewish Christianity’.” Pages 7-38 in Jewish Christianity Reconsidered: Rethinking Ancient Groups and Texts. Edited by Matt Jackson-McCabe. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2007.
- Harland, Philip A. “Familial Dimensions of Group Identity (II): “Mothers” and “Fathers” in Associations and Synagogues of the Greek World.” Journal for for the Study of Judaism 38 (2007): 57-79.
- Kessler, John. “Persia’s Loyal Yahwist: Power Identity and Ethnicity in Achaemenid Yehud.” Pages 91-121 in Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period. Edited by Oded Lipschits and Manfred Oeming. Winona Lake, Ind: Eisenbrauns, 2006.
- Marcus, Joel. “Jewish Christianity.” Pages 87-102 in The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 1 Origins to Constantine. Edited by Margaret M. Mitchell and Frances M. Young. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
- Droge, A. J. “Self-definition vis-á-vis the Graeco-Roman World.” Pages 230-244 in The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 1 Origins to Constantine. Edited by Margaret M. Mitchell and Frances M. Young. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
- Matthews, Victor H. “The Determination of Social Identity in the Story of Ruth.” Biblical Theology Bulletin 36, no. 2 (2006): 49-54.
- Swancutt, Diana M. “Scripture Reading and Identity Formation in Paul: Paideia among Believing Greeks.” Paper presented Paul and Scripture Seminar SBL., 2006, November).
- Cosgrove, Charles H. “Did Paul Value Ethnicity?.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 68, no. 2 (2006): 268-290.
- Berquist, Jon L. “Constructions of Identity in Postcolonial Yehud.” Pages 53-66 in Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period. Edited by Oded Lipschits and Manfred Oeming. Winona Lake, Ind: Eisenbrauns, 2006.
- Taylor, N. H. “Apostolic Identity and the Conflicts in Corinth and Galatia.” Pages 99-123 in Paul and His Opponents. Edited by Stanley Porter. Pauline Studies 2. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
- Harland, Philip A. “Familial Dimensions of Group Identity: ‘Brothers’ (ADELPHOI) in Associations of the Greek East.” Journal of Biblical Literature 124, no. 3 (2005): 491-513.
- Brawley, Robert L. “Social Identity and the Aim of Accomplished Life in Acts 2.” Pages 16-33 in Acts and Ethics. Edited by Thomas E. Phillips. New Testament Monographs 9. Sheffield: Phoenix, 2005.
- Faulkner, Anne. “Jewish Identity and the Jerusalem Conference: Social Identity and Self-categorization in the Early Church Communities.” ESharp 6, no. 1 (2005): 1-19.
- Moxnes, Halvor. “From Theology to Identity: The Problem of Constructing Early Christianity.” Pages 264-281 in Moving Beyond New Testament Theology? Essays in Conversation with Heikki Räisänen. Edited by Todd Penner and Caroline Vander Stichele. Publications of the Finnish Exegetical Society 88. Helsinki: Finnish Exegetical Society, 2005.
- Eisenbaum, Pamela. “A Remedy for Having Been Born of Woman: Jesus, Gentiles and Genealogy in Romans.” Journal of Biblical Literature 123 (2004): 671-702.
- Buell, Denise K. and Caroline Johnson Hodge. “The Politics of Interpretation: The Rhetoric of Race and Ethnicity in Paul.” Journal of Biblical Literature 123, no. 2 (2004): 235-251.
- MacDonald, Margaret Y. “The Politics of Identity in Ephesians.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 26, no. 4 (2004): 419-444.
- Esler, Philip F. “Ezra-Nehemiah as a Narrative of (Re-Invented) Israelite Identity.” Biblical Interpretation 11, no. 3-4 (2003): 413-426.
- Duling, Dennis C. “Whatever Gain I Had . . .”: Ethnicity and Paul’s Self-Identification in Philippians 3:5-6.” Pages 222-241 in Fabrics of Discourse: Essays in Honor of Vernon K. Robbins. Edited by David B. Gowler, L. Gregory Bloomquist, and Duane F. Watson. London: Trinity International, 2003.
- Esler, Philip F. “Social Identity, the Virtues, and the Good Life: A New Approach to Romans 12:1-15:13.” Biblical Theology Bulletin 33, no. 2 (2003): 51-63.
- Moxnes, Halvor. “Asceticism and Christian Identity in Antiquity: A Dialogue with Foucault and Paul.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 26, no. 1 (2003): 3-29.
- Esler, Philip F. “Ancient Oleiculture and Ethnic Differentiation: The Meaning of the Olive-Tree Image in Romans 11.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 26, no. 1 (2003): 103-124.
- Gilbert, Gary. “Roman Propaganda and Christian Identity in the Worldview of Luke-Acts.” Pages 233-257 in Contextualizing Acts: Lukan Narrative and Greco-Roman Discourse. Edited by Todd C. Penner and Caroline Vander Stichele. Society of Biblical Literature Symposium Series 20. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2003.
- Lieu, Judith. “Impregnable Ramparts and Walls Of Iron: Boundary and Identity in Early Judaism and Christianity.” New Testament Studies 48, no. 3 (2002): 297-313.
- Clarke, Andrew D. “Jew and Greek, Slave and Free, Male and Female: Paul’s Theology of Ethnic, Social and Gender Inclusiveness in Romans 16.” Pages 103-125 in Rome in the Bible and in the Early Church. Edited by Peter Oakes. Carlisle: Paternoster, 2002.
- Frankfurter, David. “Jews or Not? Reconstructing the ‘Other’ in Rev 2:9 and 3:9.” Harvard Theological Review 94, no. 4 (2001): 403-425.
- Hengel, Martin. “Judaism and Hellenism Revisited.” Pages 6-37 in Hellenism in the Land of Israel. Edited by Collins, John J.; Sterling, Gregory E., eds. Christianity and Judaism in Antiquity Series 13. Notre Dame, Ind: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001.
- Horrell, David G. “No Longer Jew or Greek”: Paul’s Corporate Christology and the Construction of Christian Community.” Pages 321-344 in Christology, Controversy and Community: New Testament Essays in Honour of David R. Catchpole. Edited by David G. Horrell and Christopher M. Tuckett. Supplements to Novum Testamentum 99. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
- Esler, Philip F. “Jesus and the Reduction of Intergroup Conflict: The Parable of the Good Samaritan in the Light of Social Identity Theory.” Biblical Interpretation 8, no. 4 (2000): 325-357.
- Runesson, Anders. “Particularistic Judaism and Universalistic Christianity? Some Critical Remarks on Terminology and Theology.” Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism 1 (2000): 120-144.
- Levinson, Joshua. “Bodies and Bo(a)rders: Emerging Fictions of Identity in Late Antiquity.” The Harvard Theological Review 93, no. 4 (2000): 343-372.
- Dunn, James D. G. “Who Did Paul Think He Was? A Study of Jewish-Christian Identity.” New Testament Studies 45, no. 2 (1999): 174-193.
- Stanton, Graham N. “Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho: Group Boundaries, ‘Proselytes’ and ‘God-fearers’.” Pages 263-278 in Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity. Edited by Graham N. Stanton and Guy G. Stroumsa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
- Holmberg, Bengt. “Jewish Versus Christian Identity in the Early Church?.” Revue biblique 105, no. 3 (1998): 397-425.
- Kerkeslager, Allen. “Maintaining Jewish Identity in the Greek Gymnasium: A ‘Jewish Load’ in CPJ 3.519 (= P. Schub. 37 = P. Berol. 13406).” Journal for the Study of Judaism 28, no. 1 (1997): 12-33.
- Kerkeslager, Allen. “Maintaining Jewish Identity in the Greek Gymnasium: A “Jewish Load’ in CPJ 3.159 (= P.Schub.73 = P.Berol. 13406).” Journal for the Study of Judaism 28 (1997): 12-23.
- Crüsemann, Frank. “Human Solidarity and Ethnic Identity: Israel’s Self-Definition in the Genealogical System of Genesis.” Pages 57-76 in Ethnicity and the Bible. Edited by Mark G. Brett. Leiden: Brill Academic, 1996.
- Dyck, Jonathan E. “The Ideology of Identity in Chronicles.” Pages 89-116 in Ethnicity and the Bible. Edited by Mark G. Brett. Leiden: Brill Academic, 1996.
- Stanley, Christopher D. “‘Neither Jew Nor Greek’: Ethnic Conflict in Graeco-Roman Society.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 101-124.
- Malina, Bruce. “Early Christian Groups: Using Small Group Formation Theory to Explain Christian Organizations.” Pages 96-113 in Modelling Early Christianity: Social-Scientific Studies of the New Testament in Its Context. Edited by Philip F. Esler. London: Routledge, 1995.
- Smith, Daniel L. “The Politics of Ezra: Sociological Indicators of Postexilic Judean Society.” Pages 73-97 in Second Temple Studies 1: Persian Period. Edited by P. R. Davies. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 117. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991.
- Hvalvik, R. A. “A ‘Sonderweg’ for Israel. A Critical Examination of a Current Interpretation of Romans 11.25-27.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 38 (1990): 87-107.
- Cohen, Shaye J. D. “Crossing the Boundary and Becoming a Jew.” Harvard Theological Review 82, no. 1 (1989): 13-33.
- Lowe, Malcolm. “Who Were the Ioudaioi?.” Novum Testamentum 18, no. 2 (1976): 101-130.