From Today’s Standard Newspaper. PhD: Rare qualification in African Universities:
. . . quality issues in universities in sub-Saharan Africa are directly linked to insufficient lecturers with PhD qualifications. Internationally, universities with higher ratio of staff with PhDs in relation to the number of students are highly ranked and regarded as centres of excellence.
“But low pay in comparison to that offered by alternative professional occupations has forced African PhDs to migrate to developed countries and Gulf States,” says a World Bank report on the status of university education in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that more than 30,000 Africans with PhDs live outside the continent. [Emphasis mine]
According to Unesco, the most sought after African intellectuals are those with PhD degrees in engineering, computer science, mathematics and medicine.
Ms Mamphela Ramphele, a former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cape Town, South Africa, says: “The brain drain has left universities in Africa struggling to recruit professors with advanced degrees. The lack of highly trained staff has led to declining quality of education virtually in all countries in sub-Saharan Africa.” Those who have not joined the exodus to greener pastures have debunked research and many hold multiple appointments.
See also: Peter Materu – Higher Education Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Status, Challenges, Opportunities, and Promising Practices – World Bank Working Paper No. 124 – 2007 (Pdf download – 104 pages, 400kb)
PHD Students worldwide:
Recent years have seen a steady growth in the number of doctorates awarded in almost every country.
The highest numbers for registered students in 2003/5
(Powell and Green p.235, 2007)
- US (837,000)
- China (165,000)
- UK (111,000)
- Japan (75,000)
- France (70,000)
- India (65,000)
The highest number for doctorates awarded of those listed:
- US (42,000),
- Germany (23,000)
- UK (15,000)
- India (13,000)
Source: Trends and Issues in Post Graduate Education: A Global Review. The UNESCO Forum on Higher Education, Research and Knowledge. (See Heather Eggin’s Keynote Paper for the DCU/UNESCO Forum Workshop Dublin, Ireland, 5-7 March 2008, p. 3/17). – Presentation PDF download
Citing: Powell, S.D. & Green, H. (2007) The Doctorate Worldwide Buckingham, Open University Press.