Revelation, the beast, 666, and Emperor Domitian

Over at One Coin at a Time, Brett Telford writes:

The cruelty and executions during his reign of terror were so odius that he [Domitian] earned the nickname “the Beast” amongst Romans, Greeks, Christians and Jews, according to Ethelbert Stauffer in Coniectanea Neotestamentica XI in honorem Antonii Fridrichsen sexagenarii. Ethelbert Stauffer was a German Protestant theologian who held that gematria, the numerology of the Hebrew language and alphabet, could be used to explain the Biblical number 666. Stauffer computed this “Number of the Beast” using the short form of Domitian’s names and titles: Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus… which in Greek is: Autokrator Kaisar Dometianos Sebastos Germanikos. The latter abbreviates to A KAI ΔOMET ΣEB ΓE and the gematrical formula reads:

A. K A I. Δ O M E T. Σ E B. Γ E. 1+ 20+1+10+4+70+40+5+300+200+5+2+ 3+5 = 666

Telford notes that gematria formulas have also been used to link 666 to Nero.

[Thanks: Ferrel Jenkins. Jenkins’s own publication “Did Domitian Persecute Christian? “is available free in PDF at BibleWorld.]


10 thoughts on “Revelation, the beast, 666, and Emperor Domitian

  1. There are many key elements that direct a person to what and who the beast and its mark is. One element is an image is made that people bow down to and worship and another is it has a name. Bio-chips, social security numbers, government brandings, and other concoctions do not fit. If you take the number 666 and write it in the Hebrew numbering system using letters you come up with vstr, or vav samech tav resh. Vav is a prefix while the root str means secret or hidden. If you then look up the symbols of the letters they are nail, prop, cross, and head, and mean nail, prop, mark or sign, and head or leader. If you put these together it is the crucifix, the image of the beast. If you then take the name of the image, jesus, and add it up it comes to 616. The True Messiah warned that if another came in his own name he would be accepted, and he said many will come saying they are him. He gave us the tools to figure out who this deceiver would be and said that he would sit in the temple of God making himself out to be God and that the whole world would be deceived.

  2. Richard Schurz says:


    Enclosed is a Bible study if the 7 bible clues which reveal the identity of the coming anti-christ of the Great Tribulation. Hoping for your comments and feedback.

    Your eternal friend in Jesus,



    Revelation 13:17b,18: “The mark of the beast {Or Anti-Christ} is the *NAME* of the Beast or the number of *HIS NAME*. This calls for wisdom. If anyone has insight, *LET HIM* calculate the number of the Beast {Even in AD 96 when Revelation was written}, for it is a man’s number {Or “Number of a MAN”}. *HIS* number is *666*.” God has promised in the above inspired passage that any saint {Even in AD 96–which implies that the name was known in AD 96} with spiritual wisdom and insight may calculate the name of the beast which is a *MAN’S NAME* and adds up to 666.
    In Thess 2:3 the Beast of the End-Times is called a “*MAN* of sin or lawlessness” or very SINFUL MAN and therefore the name of the Beast which adds up to 666 is a *MAN’S* name which is also confirmed in Rev 13:17b,18 above. Therefore, the NAME of the Beast which adds up to 666 is a sinful *MAN’S NAME* and could not be the name of a woman or a city, country, computer or Satan, etc.. Rev 13:16,17: “He {The False Prophet} forced everyone… to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead. No one could buy or sell unless he had the mark, which is the name of the beast {Nero Caesar??} or the number of his name {666}.
    Actually there are 7 BIBLE CLUES that show who the anti-christ of the future 1260-day Tribulation will be. By an amazing coincidence all 7 Bible clues can be applied to Nero Caesar!!
    {1} The anti-christ will be a “MAN OF SIN” or very sinful MAN as per 2 Thess 2:3 above.
    {2} The number of this sinful man’s name is 666 as per Rev 13:16-18. The Bible was written by 40 divinely inspired Hebrews in Hebrew and Greek; so then it is highly probable that this man’s name adds up to 666 in Hebrew or Greek. Nero Caesar’s name adds up to 666 in Hebrew which we will show later in this Bible study.
    {3} This sinful man whose name adds up to 666 died BEFORE AD 96 when Revelation was written.{See Rev 17:8 below}
    We will show later why Revelation was written between Sept AD 95 and Sept AD 96. Nero Caesar lived from December 15th, AD 37 to June 9th AD 68.
    {4} This sinful man died before AD 96 when Revelation was written. Nero Caesar died BEFORE AD 96 on June 9th, AD 68. {See Rev 17:8 below}
    {5} This sinful man who was aive and then died before AD 96 was FATALLY WOUNDED by a sword wound to his head. Nero Caesar committed suicide with a sword wound to his head on June 9th, AD 68. {See Rev 13:3 and Rev 13:14 below}
    {6} This very sinful man who died before AD 96 was a KING in the Roman Empire as per Daniel 7:24. The beast is also called an 8th KING who ruled before as one of 7 KINGS as per Rev 17:11. The identity of these 7 KINGS will be discissed later in this article. There were 11 Roman Kings or Caesars who died before AD 96 including the 6th Caesar who killed Paul and Peter in AD 66; and whose name adds up to 666 in Hebrew. Domitian Caesar was the 12th Caesar who was alive when Revelation was written in AD 96.
    {7} This very sinful Roman king whose name adds up to 666 and who was fatally wounded by a sword before AD 96, will “COME UP FROM THE *ABYSS* or hell as per Rev 11:7 & Rev 17:8. We know that the ABYSS is HELL by comparing 2 Peter 2:4 with Luke 8:30b,31. We can be sure that Nero Caesar is now in the Abyss or Hell since he killed Paul and Peter and thousands of Christians and sent Vespasian {the father of Titus and Domitian Caesar} to kill the Jews and destroy their Temple. The MAN OF SIN or Nero also killed his own mother and killed his pregnant wife by kicking her in the stomach.
    Revelation 17:8: The beast, which you saw, once was {alive}, Now {in AD 96} is not {alive} and will come up out of the Abyss and go to his destruction. The inhabitants of the earth whose names have not been written in the book life.. .. will be astonished when they see the beast, because he once was {Before AD 96}, now {In AD 96} is not {Alive} and yet will come. Rev 13:14: He {The False Prophet} will order the inhabitants of the earth to set up an image in honor of the beast who was {FATALLY-Rev 13:3} wounded by the sword and yet lived.” Rev 13:3: One of the heads of the beast seemed toi have had a fatal wound. but the fatal wound had been HEALED!! The whole world was astonished and followed the beast.

    When I was a missionary in Israel I studied the Hebrew language. One of the first things that you learn when you study the OT Ancient Hebrew language {Which is also the language of Israel today!} is that the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet ALSO represent 22 numbers! When you read Psalm 119 you will note that the 176 sentences are divided into 22 sections; each section with 8 sentences or verses praising the Word of God. These 22 sections are each headed by one of the letters in the hebrew alphabet in the exact same order as shown below. The ancient Hebrew language {Which is exactly the same as the modern Hebrew language} frequently used the letters of their alphabet to designate NUMBERS IN THE OT as follows:
    ALEPH=1. BETH=2. GIMEL=3. DALET=4. HE=5. VAV=6. ZAYIN=7. CHETH=8. TETH=9. YODH=10. KAPH=20. LAMED=30. MEM=40. NUN=50. SAMEKH=60. AYIN=70. PE=80. TSADHE=90. KOPH=100. RESH=200. SHIN=300. TAV=400.
    NOTE: Most vowel sounds excpt “O” {VAV} are not used as letters in Hebrew. These vowel sounds are designated by dots and dashes under their *PRECEDING* consonants. In Hebrew “N” is added on the end of all foreign names ending in “O”. Therefore, the foreign name of Nero would be “NERON” in Hebrew. The name Nero Caesar would be pronounced Neron Kaysar in Hebrew. The “E” in Neron and the 2 “A” sounds in Kaysar {There is no “C” in Hebrew} are designated by dots and dashes under their preceding consonants and therefore are not letters in the 22 letter Hebrew alphabet, and so have no numerical value. Neron in Hebrew would use 4 letters with numerical value: N-R-O-N and Kaysar in Hebrew would use 3 letters with numerical value: K-S-R. There would be a dot under the first N to show the “E” sound in NEron There would also be 2 dots under the “K” to show the “AY” sound in KAYsar and a dash under the “S” to show the “AH” sound in KaySAHr.
    The 4 letters with numerical value in NERON would be {SEE TABLE ABOVE} N = 50; R = RESH = 200; O = VAV = 6; and N = NUN = 50 and 50+20+6+50 equals 306. The 3 letters with numerical value in “KAYSAR woyld be K = KOPH = 100; S = SAMEKH = 60; and R = RESH =200 and 100+60+200 equals 360. And so the numerical value of Nero in Hebrew is 306 and the numerical value of Caesar in Hebrew is 360, and therefore the numerical value of Nero Caesar is 306+360 or exactly *666*!
    There is a very interesting footnote in the revised Standard Version concerning the number 666 which states that some ancient manuscripts have the number **616** which *DOUBLY* confirms that Nero Caesar may be the Anti-Christ!! You will note that the Hebrew language adds an “N” to all foreign names eding in “O”. Now “N” or “NUN” in Hebrew has a numerical value of **50**!! and so if you decided not to add the last “N” in NERON then Nero Caesar would add up to exactly **616** in Hebrew. I think you will admit that this is an absolutely amazing coincidence!!
    Any honest Hebrew language scholar will confirm that the letters of Nero Caesar’s name add up to 666 in the hebrew language whose 22 letters are also 22 numbers as shown above. Since all of the prophecies concerning the Anti-Chriist are written in OT Hebrew {Like Daniel 7:8-25} or NT Koine Greek it would then seem logical that God would use one of these 2 Bible languages to identify the Name of the Beast whose letters add up to 666. one of the problems of doing this in NT Koine Greek is that the letters of their alphabet are not also numbers. And therefore you can only assign a numerical value of 22 to the 22nd letter, etc.. Using this formula you could not get any name to add up to over 250, let alone 666. You have the same problem with English and all other languages other than the Hebrew language!
    NOTE: The 3 different Greek words used in Revelation 13:18b to arrive at the number 666 are the 3 different Greek words for 600 and 60 and 6 and not 6 + 6 + 6.
    Will the 6th Caesar {Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius & the *6th* is NERO who ordered the execution of Paul & Peter in AD *66*} be the Beast who comes up from the Abyss {Or Hell-See Rev 17:8} in the coming Great Tribulation??

    Rev 1:8,9: “I, John, your brother and companion in the suffering and kingdom and patient endurance that are ours in Jesus, was on the island of Patmos beacuse of the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus.” We know that the island of Patmos was the site of a Roman prison the the first Century and that the Apostle John was suffering in this prison because of his religious beliefs. {As per Rev 1:8,9 above} The island of Patmos is about 30 miles from the port of Ephesus in Western Turkey.
    History tells us that the second huge Roman persecution of Christians {The first was NERO’S PERSECUTION OF AD 64-68} occurred in the last year of the reign of Domitian Caesar which would have been from September AD 95 to September AD 96. During the last year of his rule Domitian Caesar decreed that everyone in the Roman Empire must worship idols of former Roman Caesar’s or else they would be killed or put in prison. Historical documents show us that the Apostle John lived to about AD 100 and therefore would have been alive during Domitian’s evil decree of September Ad 95 to September of AD 96. Since we can be sure that the Apostle John would never worship an idol of a Roman Caesar it is then highly probable that John was put in prison on Patmos Isle sometime during Domitian’s evil decree from September AD 95 to September AD 96. Rev 1:10,11: “On the Lord’s Day I {John} was in the spirit and I heard a loud voice {Jesus} said, ‘Write on a scroll what you see and send it to the 7 churches: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatria, Sardis, Philadelphis and Laodicea.” The last 6 churches are all in Western Turkey within 77 miles of Ephesus. About 50 years earlier Paul had started churches in these 7 cities. Paul always had Jewish converts in the cities where he preached since he had the habit of teaching in Jewish synagogues on the Sabbath. It was then highly probable that all 7 of these chuches had Jewish believers who were very familiar with the Hebrew language and of course knew that the 22 letters of the Jewish alphabet are also 22 numbers and also remembered the first Roman persecution by Nero or the “MAN OF SIN” about 30 years earlier when Paul & Peter and thousands of Christians were martyred because of Nero Caesar. Nero also sent Vespasian, the father of Titus and Domitian; to kill the Jews and destroy their Temple. He also killed his mother and killed his pregnant wife by kicking her in the stomach.

    Christian writings in the early 2nd century AD show that many Christians at that time believed that Nero Caesar {Who adds up to 666 in Hebrew} would return as the Anti-Christ of the End-Times. Rev 13:18: “This calls for wisdom. If anyone has insight {Even in AD 96}, let him {Even in AD 96} calculate the Beast, for it is a man’s number. His {Nero Caesar’s} number is 666!” And so the above Scripture absolutely guarantees that anyone with spiritual wisdom and insight could figure out who the Anti-Christ of the End-Times would be even when Revelation was first given to the churches in AD 96, and that the number of his name adds up to 666. This would of course mean that the future Anti-Christ must have been alive before AD 96 when this Scripture was given to the churches. Nero Caesar {Whose name adds up to 666 in Hebrew} certainly qualified since he lived from Dec 15th AD 37 to June 9th, AD 68 when he was fatally wounded by his own SWORD.
    NOTE: There are many statues of the exact likeness of Nero Caesar including a 151 foot statue in the “Golden House” in Rome. The statue of Liberty {Without pedestal} is also exactly 151 feet high… hmmm. At the beginning of Great Tribulation the False Prophet of 666, Rev 13:14: “Will order the people of the earth to set up a statue in honor of the beast who was wounded {Fatally-Rev 13:3} by the SWORD and yet lived!” {Again} This staue of the Beast will be the “exact likeness” of Nero Caesar and could possibly be seen on World Wide TV so that people of all nations will be able to worship this statue as per Rev 13:15b.
    Revelation 17:8b: “Those whose names have not been written in the Book of Life will be astonished when they see the beast {666}, because he once was {Alive–AD 37-68} now in AD 96 is not {Alive}, and yet will come.” {During the Great Tribulation} The Beast once was {Alive before AD 96} now is not {Alive in AD 96}, and will come out of the ABYSS {Or HELL} and go to his destruction.” {On the last Day-See Rev 19:20b}
    The fact that the ABYSS is HELL is confirmed by comparing 2 Peter 2:4 with Luke 8:30b,31: 2 Peter 2:4: “God did not spare the angels when they sinned but sent them into HELL, putting them in gloomy dungeons to be held for judgment.” Luke 8:30b,31: “Many demons {Or Hell’s Angels} had gone into him {A demon-possessed man}. And they begged Jesus repeatedly not to order them into the ABYSS! {Because they had already been in Hell or the ABYSS before!!} Also in Luke 16:22-24 we read that there was a rich man already in HELL at the time of Jesus. Now we can be absolutely certain that an evil Roman king from the city on 7 hills; who was fatally wounded by a sword *BEFORE* Revelation was written in AD 96; and whose name adds up to 666 is presently in this ABYSS or HELL!!
    All historical documents agree that Nero Caesar {The 6th Caesar who ordered the execution of Paul & Peter in AD 66 and whose name adds up to 666 in Hebrew} was fatally wounded by his own SWORD on June 9th AD 68. In Revelation 13:14b we learn that the False Prophet of 666 will order the building of a statue of 666 “Who was {FATALLY-See Rev 13:3} wounded by the SWORD and yet lived!” {AGAIN} Nero Caesar {Whose name adds up to 666 in Hebrew} again qualifies for this inspired clue as to the identity of the Anti-Christ. Nero’s 4-year Roman persecution began when he blamed the Christians for the burning of Rome in AD 64; and ended when Nero was fatally wounded by his own SWORD on June 9th, AD 68.
    Almost all conservative Bible theologians agree that the 4th Beast of Daniel 7:7,19 is the *ROMAN* Empire. In Daniel 7:20,21 we learn that a little horn who is also called a *KING* in Daniel 7:24 will come from this *ROMAN* Empire. Daniel 7:24b,25-27: “A *KING* {From the *ROMAN* Empire–Nero Caesar??} will arise…. He will speak against the Most High and oppress his saints. The saints will be handed over to him for a Time, Times and ½ a Time.” “But the court will sit, and his {666 or the Roman King or the Beast or Nero Caesar-See Rev 19:20,21 and 2 Thess 2:8} power will be taken away and completely destroyed forever. *THEN* the sovereignty, power and greatness of the kingdoms under the whole Heaven will be handed over to the saints, the people of the Most High. His Kingdom will be an everlasting Kingdom.”
    Revelation 6:7,8: When the Lamb opened the 4th seal, I heard the voice of the 4th living creature say, “Come!” I looked, and there before me was a pale horse! Its rider was named Death {666 who will cause the death of millions} and Hades {The False Prophet who will cause millions to go to Hades by receiving the mark of 666} was following close behind him. THEY {Nero Caesar and the False Prophet} were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by sword, famine and plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth. Daniel 7:8,20,24 says that an evil Roman King will conquer 3 of the 10 kingdoms {which will cover one fourth of the earth??}–Russia {Combined with former Soviet Union}, China and India cover one fourth of the earth and have over one fourth of the world’s population! These 3 kingdoms may object and become jealous of 666 and his False Prophet ruling every country in the world.
    The following 10 powerful nations have about 50% of the world’s population and certainly have the military, political and “religious” power to control and rule all the nations of the world: #1. United States #2. Russia #3. China {1.3 Billion} #4. Great Britain #5. France #6. India {1.1 Billion} #7. Germany #8. Japan #9. Brazil #10. Egypt. And then 666 will have “authority over every tribe, people, language and nation” as per Rev 13:7b, from his headquarters in Rome. 666 and his False prophet will then quickly gain complete control over the radio, tv, internet, newspaper, book and magazine medias.
    Revelation 13:4: Men worshipped the dragon {Satan}, and they also worshipped the beast {666 or Nero Caesar} and asked, “Who is like the beast? Who can make war against him?
    The next 2 paragraphs are an interesting SPECULATION about what might happen at the beginning of the 1260-day Great Tribulation.
    Revelation 6:6: “A quart of wheat for a day’s wages!” This phrase can also be translated “A loaf of bread for a day’s wages.” This event will occur at the coming of the black horse rider {Rev 6:5} which will take place just before or at the beginning of the Great Tribulation. Because of the world’s present economic crises the peoples in the 40 poorest counties now have to pay a full day’s wages for a loaf of bread as per Rev 6:6. And if the world experiences a world-wide depression this event could occur in over 100 countries. The world economic crises is rapidly accelarating. Many countries such as the Phillipines are far worse off than people in the USA during the Great Depression when there was 20 % unemployment. Two years ago there was 8 % unemployment in the Phillipines. One year ago there was 20% unemployment in the Philipines and NOW there is 40 % unemployment!! The world economic crises is rapidly accelarating. There are now 70 countries with unemployment rates of over 30 % and this should rapidly increase. And then the world will certainly be looking for an Economic Savior such as 666 and his very deceptive False Prophet. They will be looking for someone who promises CHANGE!! If the Great Tribulation would begin in the near future is there a well-known, powerful world leader that may qualify to be the deceptive False Prophet of 666 who will promise CHANGE you can believe in!! Will this powerful world leader try to bankrupt the USA which will in turn cause a worldwide depression and cause the price of a loaf of bread to cost a full day’s wages???
    And so Nero Caesar with the help of the armies of the False Prophet {Obama??} and other nations aligned with him will conquer 1/4 of the world {See Rev 6:8; 13:4b} and then 666 will appoint 10 kings over 10 kingdoms to rule the world who have never before ruled {see Rev 17:12-14} who will then take orders from 666 and his False Prophet from their headquarters in the evil city on 7 HILLS or Rome.{See Rev 17:9}
    “Babylon” is called a CITY 7 times in Revelation, chapter 18, and a SEAPORT in Rev 18:17-19. Peter was inspired to call Rome “Babylon” in I Peter 5:13. Rome is a CITY and a SEAPORT built on 7 HILLS! Babylon and Jerusalem are not seaports and are not built on 7 hills!
    Rev 13:14-17: The False Prophet deceived the inhabitants of the earth. He ordered them to set up an image in honor of the beast who was {FATALLY-Rev 13:3} wounded by the sword and yet lived. He was given power to give breath to the image of the first beast {666}, so that it could speak and cause all who refused to worship the image to be killed. He also forced everyone to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead, so that no one could buy or sell unless he had the mark, which is the name of the beast {NERO CAESAR} or the number of his name {666}. And God will supply all the needs of His faithful and corageous Tribulation saints just as He miraculously supplied all the needs of the Israelites for 40 years in the wilderness. {See Matt 6:31-34}
    Rev 13:5-10: The beast was given a mouth to utter proud words and blasphemies and to exercise his authority for 42 {30-day} months {Or 1260 days or time, times and 1/2 a time-See Dan 7:25 & Dan 12:1,2,6b,7b}….. He was given power to make war against the saints and to conquer them. And he was given authority over every tribe, people, language and nation. All inhabitants of the earth will worship the beast–all whose names have not been written in the book of life belonging to the Lamb…. This call for patient endurance and faithfulness on the part of the saints.
    Matt 24:9-12…Matt 24:29-31: Jesus says, “Then {During the 42-month Great Tribulation} you will be handed over to be persecuted and put to death, and you will be hated by ALL nations because of Me. At that time many will turn away from the faith and will betray and hate each other, and many false prophets will appear and deceive many people. Because of the increase of wickedness, the love of most will grow cold, but he who stands firm to the end will be saved… Immediately after the distress of those {1260} days ‘the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light and the stars will fall from the sky.’ At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory. And He will send His angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather His elect from the 4 winds, from one end of the heavens to the other.” {Mark 13:27 adds, “From the ends of the earth to the ends of the heavens.”


    Most Bible scholars believe that the book of First Peter was written shortly after the beginning of Nero’s Roman persecution of Christians in AD 64 because of I Peter 4:12,13 & 5:8,9. We know that Peter and his wife were living in Rome at this time. Peter was inspired to write in I Peter 5:13: “She {Peter’s wife} who is in *BABYLON* {Nickname for *ROME*!} sends you her greetings, and so does my son Mark.” Apparently some Christians including Peter were inspired to call ROME “BABYLON” after Nero’s terrible persecution of Christians in AD 64. This is very interesting since the evil city of the End-Times is called “BABYLON” 6 times in Revelation 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2,10,21. God had promised in Jeremiah 50:3,13; 51:26,62-64 that no one would ever live in Babylon again after her total destruction which occurred about 275 BC. And God kept His promise for about 2284 years; since Babylon is still a pile of rubble to this very day, and will remain that way until the Last Day of the Planet Earth; for God always keeps His promises. “Babylon” {Nicknamed Rome by Peter} is a “GREAT SEAPORT” in Rev 18:17-19; JUST LIKE ROME and UNLIKE Babylon whose ruins are NOW 4 miles from the very shallow Euphrates River; or Jerusalem which is 2000 to 3000 feet above sea level and 35 miles from the Mediterranean Sea. Babylon is also completely FLAT whereas the End-Time “Babylon” will be a city built on 7 Hills JUST LIKE ROME!!
    Rev 17:18: “The woman you saw {Rev 17:3–Who sits with the Beast with 7 heads} is the great *CITY* {Rome–nicknamed Babylon in I Peter 5:13–See Rev 17:5a} that will rule over the kings of the earth.” {During the Great Tribulation} Rev 17:9-11: “This calls for a mind with wisdom. The 7 heads are 7 hills on which the woman {Or city of Rome} sits.” Rome is a city built on 7 HILLS!! They {The 7 Heads} are also 7 KINGS {From the city on 7 hills or Rome}. Five {Of these 7 KINGS} have fallen {Or died before AD 96}, one {the 6th KING} *IS* {Or reigning when Revelation was written in AD 96}, the other {or 7th KING} has not yet come, but when he {The 7th KING} does come, he must remain for for a little while. {Possibly the False Prophet of 666 {Or Black Horse Rider} who will be anointed by Satan just before the coming of the 8th KING {Or Pale Horse Rider} who ruled before as one of the 7 Kings} The beast {Nero Caesar who once was {Alive from Dec 15, AD 37 to June 9, AD 68}, and NOW {In AD 96} is not {Alive} is an 8th KING. He belongs to the 7 {KINGS}, because He once was {Alive-AD 37-68} NOW {In AD 96} is not {Alive}, and yet will come {1260 days before the Last Day}.”
    WHO ARE OR WILL BE THE 8 KINGS OF REV 17:10,11?? ROME APPOINTED THE JEWISH KINGS AFTER THEY CONQUERED ISRAEL IN 63 BC AND THE 7 KINGS OF REV 13:1B all had “blasphemous names” so we can assume that they were evil kings who had killed or persecuted Jesus and His followers. And so the first 3 EVIL KINGS {Who are all called KINGS in God’s Word{See Matt 2:1; Mark 6:25,26 & Acts 12:1} were all Israeli KINGS appointed by the evil city on 7 hills or Rome:


    ** {#1} ** Herod the Great who tried to kill the baby Jesus: Rev 12:3-5: “Another sign appeared in Heaven : An enormous red DRAGON {Or Satan-See Rev 12:9} with 7 heads {Or 7 KINGS-See Rev 17:10a}… and 7 crowns on his {7} heads {Satan crowns the 7 kings whereas 666 crowns the 10 horns}. The DRAGON {Or Satan} stood in front of the woman who was about tlo give birth, so that he might devour her Child the moment he was born {Thru his first evil king or Herod the Great as per Matt 2:13b,16!!} She gave birth to a Son {Jesus} a male Child, who will rule the nations with an iron scepter!!”
    **{#2}** Herod Antipas who killed John the Baptist and ridiculed and tortured Jesus {See Matt 14:1-12; Luke 23:7-11}
    **{#3}** Herod Antipas who killed the Apostle James and tried to kill Peter. {See Acts 12:1-5,19-23} **{#4}** Nero Caesar who will come again as the 8th KING who will be the anti-christ of the End-Times.
    **{#5}** Titus Caesar who killed thousands of Christians when he destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in AD 70. Titus is also mentioned as a “Prince” in Daniel 9:26. Titus Caesar was the oldest son of Vespasian Caesar who was Caesar from Dec AD 69 to AD 79; and therefore heir and Crown *PRINCE* to the throne in Rome and was Caesar from AD 79 to AD 81.
    **{#6**}** Domitian Caesar the 6th KING {“NOW IS”} was ruling in AD 96, and decreed in the last year of his reign {Sept AD 95 to Sept AD 96} that everyone must worship former Roman Caesars {Like Nero} or be killed and put in prison.
    **{#7}** Possibly the False Prophet of 666 who will be crowned the 7th evil King of Rome by Satan shortly before the coming of the:
    **{8th}** KING or Nero Caesar {The End-Time Beast or Anti-Christ}; who ruled before as one of the **7 KINGS** The 4TH & 8TH KING will come up up from the Abyss or Hell exactly 1260 days before the last Day to rule from the evil city on 7 hills or Rome.
    Rev 17:6: “The woman {ROME} will be drunk with the blood of the saints, the blood of those who bear testimony to Jesus.” While in in Rev 13:7 we learn that the Anti-Christ will be given “power to make war against the saints and to conquer them.” And in Rev 13:15b we read that 666 will “cause all who refuse to worship his statue to be killed.” We must therefore conclude that the evil city “on 7 hills” or Rome will be the HEADQUARTERS of 666 during the Great Tribulation.
    The Anti-Christ will very quickly conquer 1/4th of the world with many miracles {See Rev 6:8; 13:4} and will then appoint 10 Kings who have never before ruled over the 10 most powerful nations of the world {See Rev 17:12-14,17}. The following 10 powerful nations have about 50% of the world’s population and certainly have the military, political and “religious” power to control and rule all the nations of the world: #1. United States #2. Russia #3. China {1.3 Billion} #4. Great Britain #5. France #6. India {1.1 Billion} #7. Germany #8. Japan #9. Brazil #10. Egypt. And then 666 will have “authority over every tribe, people, language and nation” as per Rev 13:7b, from his headquarters in the city built on 7 hills or Rome.

    • Ben says:

      Thanks Richard,
      You have clearly spent a lot of time thinking about and researching this, and it makes a very interesting read. To be honest with you, I don’t support this kind of speculation for a lot of reasons. I don’t have the time or energy to respond to you here, but I think our energies would be better spent in other areas. People have been trying to make these kinds of predictions for hundreds of years and the circumstances and players always change. The Pope used to be a very popular candidate, then it was the president of the EU – back when they had 10 members, and . . . to insinuate that Obama might be the anti-Christ??? See James McGrath – Why I know Obama is NOT the Antichrist

      Let’s just leave it at this; when Christ returns, those of us who have faithfully followed the Scriptures will know, and we won’t be taken in by any false prophets in the meantime. I think God is going to surprise us again, the same way Jesus surprised so many when he came the first time. Even those who were ready for and expecting him had their paradigm of what he would do radically changed.

      • Brent says:

        The Anti christ is never mentioned in Revelation. Just a pertinent point. Much of what people assume to be futuristic language is nothing more than stock language of apocalyptic writing (e.g., 1 Enoch 6, 10; 4 Ezra; Isa. 24-27, Dan 7, 10, etc).

        BTW, I think your above response is really good.

    • James says:

      Hi…i have a lot of contention with this theory…my biggest point of contention is that Hebrew scholars do not all agree upon the idea of numerology…I know many Hebrew Rabbis (simply for language purposes) and many Christian theologians who are fluent in Hebrew and Greek who argue that numerology is completely false that even though the letters are assigned value, those letters are not based on that value…Nero was named Nero because his father chose that name…(that Greek name)…he definetly did not have Hebrew language on his mind…even if u then translated his name to Henrew which u did…the problem lies that this man was not Henrew and did not have a literal Hebrew name…therefore John would not have had Nero on the mind when he talked about the number ‘666’ for Nero was not even Hebrew…these are all 21st century hypothesis…I would argue that even if numerology was true that John did not have this on his mind when he spoke of this number…

      another major contention is with domitian…
      simply the Greek word that people used to refer to domitian was not the same word John used for the beast…John used ‘thērion’ or ‘θηρίον’ which literaly means a dangerous animal… it was a word that was commonly used to refer to non domestic animals such as snakes…quite the comparison here…this word was commonly used for snakes…these people new their Scripture…Genesis with the snake in the garden…John later writes about Satan who is the serpent…hmmmm…just speculating…

  3. Armando Rances says:

    Hi Richard!

    Like me, you really spent so much time looking for an answer about that biblical 666. I have read much of that same interpretations such as yours in wikipedia and other websites.

    The thing is, I’m not convinced by those interpretations because mostly, i can see biases against the Catholic Church from those who try to publish their interpretation. Some accusing the future pope to be the anti-Christ who bears the number 666. I also try to dig into these Hebrew Kabbalah and Greek numerology, including Pythagorean, numerology. The result still not convincing. The Chaldean numerology is better but it can be used only for our modern time interpretation using modern English alphabet.

    I believe that ancient Imperial Rome was the Prostitute who sits on the red beast with 7 heads and 10 horns. Rev. 17 made it clear as the great city who rules the earth sitting on seven hills for which Rome is known for. The same chapter also made clear that the seven head are seven hills on which the woman sits. They are also seven king who rules on that city; five of them have fallen; the sixth is currently ruling; the 7th not yet; when he comes he will rule only for a short while; and the 8th ruler when he comes, he will breath life to the to the technically dead Act of Nero which is the persecution of Christians. And this Revival of Persecution was made possible by Emperor Domitian when he accused as atheist those who do not Acknowledge him “lord and god”. Was Domitian the 8th king mentioned in Rev. 17?

    Roman history tells us that Augustus was the first Emperor of Rome bearing the blasphemous title “Divi Filius” (son of god) being the adopted son of the deified Juilius Caesar. After him Tiberius, then Caligula who assumed another blasphemous title “living god” later assassinated. Then came Claudius the 4th emperor, followed by Nero the 5th, who Instituted the bloody Persecution of Christians as an escape goat for burning Rome. With the death of Nero, the 1st dynasty of Roman emperors, the Julio-Claudian dynasty died with him.

    A power struggle between three usurpers, Galba, Otho, and Vitilius ensued. Then came the 4th contestant Vespasian who was able to secure the imperial throne with the approval of the senate and the people of Rome with the enabling Law called the “Lex De Imperio Vespasiani”. It is clear that the 6th emperor of rome was Vespasian, and the 7th his son Titus, ruled only a short two years and two month. Then came the 8th, Domitian, Titus’ brother. Does it sounds indisputable?

    Nero the 5th head was the first persecutor of Christians. After him ten more rulers of Rome will Revive the persecution whether intentional or political survival as it symbolizes ten horns of the beast. Domitian was the first horn of the beast Nero. Trajan was the second horn who also approved the punishment of known Christians. The third horn was Marcus Aurelius, the 4th Septimus Severus, 5th, Maximinus Thrax, 6th, Decius, 7th, Valerian, 8th, Aurelian, 9th, Diocletian, 10th Galerius, the last persecutor.

    I believe the ruler who bears the number 666 has passed already during the 1st century. All clues points to the Flavian dynasty as the one who will come as the legal heir to the Julio-Claudian dynasty. They are the 2nd beast who revived the power of the 1st beast and uses the vast authority granted by the Senate and the people of Rome to Augustus.

    As I said Chaldean Numerology is good only in our modern English Alphabet. 666 may have been taken from the usual Roman address to their emperor designate as it also appears on the coins of their rulers

    In the case of Vespasian’s coins, his title and name appears on their coins as: IMP CEASAR VESPASIANUS, as also appears in his “LEX”, Imperator Caesar Vespasianus. Translating it to our modern English usage, (EMPEROR) (CAESAR) (VESPASIANUS). Applying Chaldean numerology to the name we get; (5+4+8+5+2+7+2) (3+1+5+3+1+2) (6+5+3+8+1+3+1+1+5+6+3). Adding them we get (33) (15) (42); adding them again to get the single digits of each, we get (3+3) (1+5) (4+2) = 666.

    Check Chaldean numerology on the website:


    Armando Rances

  4. Ben says:

    You guys would all benefit from reading David DeSilva’s new book: Seeing Things John’s Way: The Rhetoric of the Book of Revelation (Westminster John Knox, 2009)

    • Armando Rances says:

      Thanks Ben!

      I’ll buy and read that book sooner when time and my resources allow me to.

      I just want you to know that I have no objection on German theologian Ethelbert Stauffer’s pointing to Emperor Domitian as the one who bears the number 666 based on the abbreviations of still extant series of Domitian’s coins as it seems that only John and people of wisdom of that time could decipher the name that correspond to the number. I had stated in my earlier post, that all clues points to the second beast with two lamb’s horns that came out of the earth (land) as the one that bears the number 666. The 1st beast was the Julio-Claudian Dynasty that has five emperors that ruled Rome—all five proclaimed within the city of the seven hills. This dynasty ceased its existence with the death of Nero who has no legitimate successor. Vespasian, the victorious contestant to the imperial purple, replaces the lost imperial dynasty (Julio-Claudian) when the senate and the people of Rome granted him an enabling law called “Lex De Imperio Vespasiani”, legally vested in him the power, authority, prerogatives and exemptions granted to Augustus and his legitimate successors. That made Titus Flavius Vespasianus the 6th emperor of Rome, and his Flavian Dynasty the 2nd beast that John saw in his vision (Apocalypse 13) coming out of the earth (land) since when Vespasian was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Egypt he was then the ruling governor of Judaea—John’s native land. All five (5) emperors of the 1st beast (Julio-Claudian) were proclaimed overseas—in Rome. That’s why John saw the 1st beast coming out of the sea. Those first five emperors were made across the other side of the Mediterranean Sea. The 2nd beast—Flavians—like the 1st beast, brood a Nero-like monster—Titus Flavius Domitianus which happens to be the 8th legitimate emperor of Rome—2nd persecutor of Christians. That makes Domitian—8th king—the 1st of the ten (10) horns of the wounded beast—Nero—that was once alive, but lives no longer who is one of the seven—the wounded 5th head—and is going off to be destroyed.

      Apocalypse 17:11
      • And the beast that was once alive, but lives no longer, is itself an eighth king who is one of the seven and is going off to be destroyed.

      While there’s a consensus that John wrote the Apocalypse during his banishment to Patmos Island towards the end of Domitian’s rule, some of the visions seem to have been revealed earlier, and was included in the book.

      For instance, Apocalypse 17:10 provide a clue of the era of the vision of Chapter 17. It was during the rule of the 6th king (emperor), pointing to Emperor Vespasian’s rule (the 6th emperor of Rome), and supported by the succeeding clues of the same chapter; the short rule of the 7th king—Titus 7th emperor of Rome, ruled only 2 years and 2 months in A.D. 79-81—and the rule of the 8th king—Domitian the 8th emperor of Rome—who proved to be another monster like Nero.

      Probably, God prepared John earlier before he was sent to the church in Ephesus to assume the ecclesiastical head to the seven churches in Asia. Historical facts provide us with some records of the significance of Ephesus during the time of John. Ephesus was the 2nd largest and progressive commercial city in the Roman Empire following Rome with a population of about 400,000. It was as important as Rome for the Christians to save souls for Christ, for like Rome; it was also the center of pagan religions where the goddess Artemis (Diana) was the primary deity of the pagan Ephesians and the Roman imperial-cult was being strengthened through the temple of the “Goddess Roma and the Divine Caesar” supported by the powerful unscrupulous financial societies that took advantage of the vanity of the equally unscrupulous emperor by designing and proposing to build a magnificent temples where the Imperial-Cult could worship and offer sacrifices for the emperor, or to the majestic statue created in his image for the cult to worship.

      In the case of Emperor Domitian who assumed a blasphemous title “dominus et dues” (lord and god), a magnificent temple with a 5 meter tall majestic statue of him was constructed in Ephesus for his worship. This was the first time the Ephesians was granted the honor to build a temple of a living emperor who consider himself a living god. The construction of Domitian’s temple and his statue was not for free. It was not financed by the emperor himself. According to history, it was proposed by the Ephesians and was granted by Domitian. The proponents of this project were not really interested in the worship of an insane emperor; rather, they were just seeking favors from the emperor through flattery to amass more and more wealth for themselves from these kinds of impressive projects. When the temple for the worship of Emperor Domitian was proposed, there is of course a proposed financing scheme to fund its construction. Here the proponents of the project may request the emperor for a tax farming right for a long period of time where they may be able to collect excessive tax on the citizens of a certain region, or they may be able to obtain from the emperor a special franchise right to have a monopoly on the lucrative buy and sell business on their regions where the citizens cannot sell their products to any other than the holder of the franchise right which the holder can buy the products at an under-valued price and resell it at an inflated price. This practice of monopolizing business by the winning bidder among the financially powerful Equite Class—commercial class—to fund a construction of Rome’s projects exist even though Augustus abolished already the oppressive tax farming scheme provided the ruling emperor sanctioned it, for it falls within his legal exemptions and prerogatives granted under his Tribunicia Potestas and Imperium Procosular Maius power. Doesn’t this special franchising match Apocalypse 13:17 that states “No one could buy or sell unless he had this mark, that is, the beast’s name or the number that stands for the name”, and the mark mentioned was the inscriptions on the seal of the emperor that appears on the franchise certificate or a ring having the seal of the emperor worn by the agent of the emperor. No wonder the Equite Class during that time become wealthier than the Patrician Class—senatorial class.

      Though there’s no evidence that Domitian force people to have a mark on their hands or foreheads, Suetonius, Dio, and other Roman writers confirmed that Domitian required his subjects to address him “dominus et deus” (lord and god). That also was applicable when sending letters to Domitian; he must also be addressed in the letter “dominus et dues”. Suetonius even reports that Domitian dictated a letter that starts “Our Lord and God”.

      The forcing of the people to have a mark could have been averted because of John’s presence in Ephesus; warning its citizens especially the Christians and the Jews of the serious consequence of giving in to Domitian’s blasphemous schemes. Perhaps, Domitian himself was alarmed when John was put on a cauldron of boiling oil but wasn’t hurt; instead he banished John to isolation in Patmos Island to make it appear that he is gone.

      Perhaps God intervened, the way he did when Rome’s 3rd emperor Gaius Caligula ordered to put his statue on the temple of God in Jerusalem. Before the order was carried out Caligula was assassinated, therefore averted a confrontation between the Romans and both the Jews and the Christians. In the same way, Domitian was assassinated to prevent him from obtaining the senate vote for an empire wide extermination of Christians and Jews. Jewish traditions had an account on why Domitian accused his cousin, the Roman consul Flavius Clemens of being an atheist and had him executed, while Clemens wife, Flavia Domitilla—Domitian’s neice—vanished.
      According to Jewish tradition, Domitian’s rule culminated in blunder by issuing a decree that in 30 days the senate will vote an edict for an empire-wide execution of Christians and Jews. Five days before the senate voting, Flavia Domitilla, Domitians niece and wife of the Roman consul Flavius Clemens who were both converts of Rabbi Akiva Bin Yossef to Judaism, exhorted his husband to save the Jews by committing suicide to delay the senate voting for it will take a long time to elect a new consul to preside the senate voting. The next day Flavius Clemens went to the emperor to admit his Jewish conversion. Domitian accused him of being atheist before the senate that condemns him to death. Emperor Domitian was assassinated by Stephanus, Clemens’ steward with the complicity of Domitia Longina the emperor’s wife without obtaining the senate vote for his decree. Because of Domitian’s tyranny, the senate condemned him—like Nero—“Damnatae Memoriae” (damnation of memory) invalidating his Acts, therefore, saving the Jews and the Christians from imminent extermination.
      Photographs of the ruins of Domitian’s magnificent temple in Ephesus can be viewed through the internet. The ruins of the temple of “Goddess Rome” and of “Divine Caesar” constructed in Ephesus in 29 B.C. by the authority of Augustus can also be viewed with the same medium.
      I honestly disagree all of Mr. Richard Schurz’s speculations about the beasts of Apocalypse 13 and 17, including that of the little horn of the beast with 10 horns in Daniel 7. His speculations will never happen because both these visions of John and Daniel are the same thing and was fulfilled already together with Daniel 2:31—45 before the closing of the 4th century A.D.
      The little horn that came up + the 3 horns that falls = 4 horns. Isn’t this the divided empire mentioned in Daniel 2:41? And that, “at the time of these rulers the God of heaven will establish a kingdom that will never end, will never be conquered but will completely destroy all those empires and then last forever”? (Daniel 2:44)

      The divided empire was the Roman Tetrarchy—administration of four rulers (2 emperors and 2 deputy emperors)—established by Emperor Diocletian in 1 March A.D. 293. Diocletian’s deputy emperor Caesar Galerius—the instigator of the great and last persecution of Christians—was the little horn in Daniel 7. A year after the death of Galerius, God showed Constantine—son of the devout Christian, Helena—the signs he should use to win his battles. They were the Christian secret countersigns; the cross and the superimposed Chi-Rho (x-P) sign. God gave these signs to Constantine to paint on his army’s shields and banners on purpose. Christian population at that time is ready for harvest. If they come out openly and unite, their population was strong enough to initiate a political stalemate with their pagan oppressors. Constantine’s army painted with the secret Christian countersign on their shields was seen by Christians as the army of God sent to them by the Lord Jesus Christ. Since then the Christians enjoyed protection from the emperor. They openly propagated the Christian fate throughout the Roman Empire. In A.D. 388 Emperor Theodosius put to a senate vote on whose worship the religion of the Romans be, Jupiter or Christ? After a heated argumentation and deliberation the Roman Senate though still controlled by pagan majority, by divine intervention or by enlightenment that cause a doubt of their traditional God, cast an extraordinary majority vote that condemned and degraded their primary god Jupiter in favor of Christ; leading to the proscription of pagan religion throughout the Roman Empire.

      Indeed, it was this time of the 4th Century A.D. that fulfilled the end of both beast of Daniel 7 and John’s Apocalypse 13 and 17, and God’s kingdom was established and did not end till this time.

      Daniel 2:41-44:

      • 41 You saw that the feet and toes were partly clay and partly iron. This means that it will be a divided empire. It will have something of the strength of iron, because there was iron mixed with clay. 42 The toes—partly clay and partly iron—means part of that empire will be strong and partly weak. 43 You also saw that the iron was mixed with the clay. This means that the rulers of that empire will try to unite their families by intermarriages, but they will not be able to, any more than iron can mix with clay. 44 At the time of those rulers the God of heaven will establish a kingdom that will never end. It will never be conquered, and will completely destroy all those empires and then last forever.

      Daniel 2:35
      • But the stone grew to be a mountain that covered the whole earth.
      For a detailed explanation on this issue, I’ll rather advised Mr. Richard Schurz to read my post in response to a certain Mr. Artaxerxes Garcia’s post on the same issue on this website:

  5. frederick says:

    the book of revelation of john, has beena fascination for many sincere christian believers; unfortunatly that is what it is , fascination& human speculation!!!

    We humans have a tendency to seek the signs of the future, long before christ came , with the roman soothsayers and syblls& even from the books of nostradamus and others till now.

    Apostle paul said it all in 1 corinthians chapter 13!! we can have faith to move mountains, have knowledge of the mysteries of the books of john, yet without the love of god through his son and his holy power, we cant overcome any power that john wrote in his day or any day since then. without the love of the living god we are nothing against any demon power or anti- christ authority.

  6. Tsadi Waw Mem Taw says:

    Roman Numerals greatest to least: M – 1,000, D – 500, C – 100, L – 50, X – 10, V – 5, I – 1. Subtract 1,000, as the book of Revelation contains a sum of 1,000 in the form of the Millennial Reign, possibly signifying Marcus Nerva, and you are left with DCLXVI – 666, with the head numeral also serving as the first letter of the name Domitian, with Domitian having been believed to have been possessed by the spirit of Nero (beast who is one of the seven and also the eighth, or something like that).

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